Since time immemorial pursuit to knowledge has been a never ending process for the man. The man has always been capable of evolving new methods and techniques to overcome his difficulties. In earlier times the means were primitive but with the advancement of science and technology, applications of safety measures and man's own disciplines and controls, situation today is far more redeeming yet quite alarming in many fields. Of all fields, degeneration of environment is the most alarming, caused by emission of toxic gases and discharge of effluents and most importantly generation of excessive heat due to excessive loss of energy by all equipment and devices consuming energy in whatever form. Electromagnetic (EM) emissions also cause environmental pollution affecting performance of equipment and devices operating in their vicinity.

The gradual rise in human awareness even about his own callousness towards contributing to the above causes, he is now getting intensely engaged in containing the causes and mitigating their effects as far as possible. Rigorous R&D in various fields around the world by those who are more aware and concerned is now the order of the day. Emphasis is on controlling all kinds of pollutions and all such emissions that contribute to global warming or health hazard at source itself. Similarly, energy and space saving. All such requirements can form the eco norms. These issues are discussed in this handbook to the extent related to the topics covered to keep the readers abreast with the latest technological philosophies and the disciplines that one is required to observe. For more information refer to 'Kyoto Protocol'*.

The present edition is a thoroughly revised and upgraded version of the earlier handbook 'Industrial Power Engineering and Applications Handbook'. It accounts for technological changes, product developments and new applications that have taken place in the last one decade.  This also takes account of upgraded and new national and international Standards that have become available in this period. Some of the new topics that have been added are noted in Table P-1. It has been done to keep the readers well informed of the latest technologies and practices being adopted worldwide in the field of Electrical and Electronic Power Engineering. Energy saving and space saving are buzzwords in today's world. All these aspects have been given due consideration in the present handbook and accordingly special thrust is laid on,

- Energy conservation
- Use of energy efficient electrical and electronic equipment and devices
- Environment and pollution controls
- Space saving

* Kyoto Protocol was opened up for signature on Dec. 11, 1997 at Kyoto, Japan and came into force with effect from Feb. 16, 2005. In all 141 countries have presently ratified the protocol. It is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention to Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty on global warming. It also reaffirms sections of the UNFCCC countries who have ratified this protocol and commit to reduce the emission of green house gases (GHG) (the major gases being water vapours (36-70%), CO2 (9-26%), Ozone (3-7%), and minor gases being methane (CH4), Nitrous oxide (N2O), Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC11 to 115, Section 13.10.1) and many more).

Energy conservation

All efforts have been made to identify areas, equipment and devices that can save energy. Some such areas discussed in this book are :

- Energy efficient motors (EEM)
- Soft starters and energy feedback through static drives
- Energy efficient and space saver belt drives
- Fluid couplings for soft starting and energy saving
- Power cables, busbars and gas or fluid pipelines
- Air insulated and gas insulated switchgears (GIS) and general guidelines to save energy where possible.
- Compact and sandwich low loss busbar systems
- Retrofitting of old installations, equipment and devices with energy efficient and space saving equipment and devices

It is suggestive that manufacturers and equipment suppliers, who deal with energy efficient products or technologies, as customary, provide repayment schedule to their users for encouraging them use energy efficient products and technologies and enable them take a more pragmatic decision while making the purchases.


- Similarly, thrust is on environmental and pollution controls by way of effluent treatment of waste water and disposal of wastes.
- Also practising EMC/EMI norms to control electromagnetic and radiated field environmental pollutions.
- Restrictions on the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS) in the manufacture of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) and their waste management (WEEE)
- (collection, treatment, recycling and disposal under controlled conditions).

Technical information

To compile all these details a lot of research and hard labour  has gone into obtaining vital data and details from different leading manufacturers and users worldwide. The basic thrust of the book is to provide such information that is not easily available. All topics are backed up with extensive study and research by the author and information provided by leading manufacturers and consultants.

Utmost care has been taken to ensure authenticity of text in technical discussions, inferences drawn and applications on a particular subject matter. All data provided and recommendations made are corroborated through relevant IEC and other Standards  and generally accepted practices worldwide. Presenting all such Standards in a tabular form with their equivalent BS, IS, IEEE, NEMA and ANSI Standards, as practised by different countries, for each chapter and each topic is a unique  feature of the handbook and shall greatly help a practising engineer, consultant or a design engineer,  student or research scholar in their day to day working and handling of these subjects and machines.

All this has been done to benefit the readers and provide them such vital data and details so handy. The language is simple and distinct and easily comprehensible. Those who like to learn and be abreast with the technological advances, modern practices and applications will find the handbook extremely informative and useful. Masters in their fields surely know all this. The topics added in the present addition are shown in Table P-1.


There is a continuous upgradation of Standards and products. It is therefore advisable that the user of a product may consult the latest Standards for the latest specifications. The main thrust is on IEC Standards but NEMA, ANSI and IEEE Standards that are more
prominent in many countries are also considered and given due reference. BS and IS Standards are gradually adapting to IEC Standards, their equivalent are also mentioned where possible. Similarly, more prominent ISO Standards are also mentioned.

Tables and data

All tables and data obtained from manufacturers are for general reference only. With continuous improvements and advancements in technology and product the data and applications may vary. The user must consult the manufacturer for accurate data.

Mathematical and voltage systems

Endeavour is to provide as much information with as much clarity as possible. Different countries may adapt to different mathematical systems (like MKS or FPS), 50 Hz or 60 Hz and also different voltage systems (new voltage systems are mentioned in the Introduction). While MKS and 50 Hz system has been chosen in the book for all explanations, where possible data are provided for FPS as well as 60 Hz systems also. It has been done to help the readers find it easy to comprehend the subject matter and translate it to their system easily.

Similarly, there may be variations in basic components and raw materials from country to country, but it would be easy to apply the practical approach of this book and use only the available raw materials and components.


The cross-references should not be hindrance to smooth reading. They are aimed to provide more details to the reader on a particular subject or its additional applications, and in the process providing more clarity on the subject. This is a unique feature of the handbook and it is hoped the readers will like it.


The book contains enormous amount of rare and valuable information. To make it convenient for the reader to search out an information, we have tried to provide an exhaustive index to enable him locate his information promptly.

It is hoped the readers will find the book unique and useful.
K.C. Agrawal

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